Hindu-Arabic numeration system
The Hindu-Arabic numeration system evolved around A.D. 800. It is basically the numeration system that is widely used today.
The following lists 4 main attributes of this numeration system
First, it uses 10 digits or symbols that can be used in combination to represent all possible numbers
The digits are 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9.
Second, it groups by tens, probably because we have 10 digits on our two hands. Interestingly enough, the word digit literally means finger or toes
In the Hindu-Arabic numeration system, ten ones are replaced by one ten, ten tens are replaced by one hundred, ten hundreds are replaced by one thousand,
10 one thousand are replaced by 10 thousands, and so forth...
Third, it uses a place value. starting from right to left,
- the first number represents how many ones there are
- the second number represents how many tens there are
- the third number represents how many hundreds there are
- the fourth number represents how many thousands there are
For example, in the numeral 4687, there are 7 ones, 8 tens, 6 hundreds, and 4 thousands
Finally, the system is additive and multiplicative. The value of a numeral is found by multiplying each place value by its corresponding digit and then adding the resulting products
Place values: thousand hundred ten one
Digits 4 6 8 7
Numeral value is equal to 4 × 1000 + 6 × 100 + 8 × 10 + 7 × 1 = 4000 + 600 + 80 + 7 = 4687
Notice that the Hindu-Arabic numeration system require requires fewer symbols to represent numbers as opposed to other numeration system
Each Hindu-Arabic numeral has a word name. Here is short list:
0: Zero 10: Ten
1: One 11: Eleven
2: Two 15: Fifteen
3: Three 20: Twenty
4: Four 30: Thirty-four
5: Five 40: Fourty
6: Six 100: One hundred
7: Seven 590: Five hundred seventy
8: Eight 5083: Five thousand eighty-three
9: Nine 56000: Fifty-six thousand
Numbers from 1 through 12 have unique names
Numbers from 13 through 19 have "teens" as ending and the ending is blended with names for numbers from 4 through 9
For numbers from 20 through 99, the tens place is named first followed by a number from 1 through 10
Numbers from 100 through 999 are combinations of hundreds and previous names