Simplifying algebraic expressions with one or more variables by combining like terms is what this lesson will show you.
We will show you first how to simplify numerical expressions.
Let's say you are adding 5 + 5 + 5 + 5. What is a quick way to get the answer?
You can do 4 × 5 and 4 × 5 is a simplifed version of 5 + 5 + 5 + 5
If you had the following problem to add 5 + 5 + 5 + 5 + 5 + 5 + 5 + 5 + 5 + 5 + 5, you can quickly see why it would be useful to just count
how many fives there are and then times the amount by 5.
Since there are 11 fives, the simplified expression is 11 × 5
What does this have to do with simplifying algebraic expressions?
Try to simplify v + v + v + v + v + v
Well, in the same manner, just count how many v's there are and multiply the amount by v
Since there are 6 of them, v + v + v + v + v + v = 6 × v
To simplify 6 × v even further, you can write 6v. However, remember that there is a multiplication between 6 and v
Notice that putting a 1 next to each v will not change the answer.
v + v + v + v + v + v = 1v + 1v + 1v + 1v + 1v + 1v = ( 1 + 1 + 1 + 1 + 1 + 1)v = 6v
This shows you a couple of things. First, 1v = v.
Then, when simplifying algebraic expressions, you can just do your math with the number on the left on the variable
Now, try to add v + v + v + v + x + x + x
I hope it makes sense to you that you cannot add v and x. What is v + x? You cannot say 2v because it is v + v that is equal to 2v
You cannot say 2x because it is x + x that is equal to 2x. Basically v and x are not like terms, so v + x is just equal to v + x
By the same token, there is another thing you need to watch for. What is v + 2? It is not 2v as already shown
Again, v and 2 are not like terms either, so v + 2 = v + 2
However, since you can add all the v's, we call the v's like terms. Same for the x's, they are called like terms
v + v + v + v + x + x + x = ( v + v + v + v) + ( x + x + x) = 4 × v + 3 × x = 4v + 3x
What about 4v + 3x + 5v + 4x?
You cannot add 4v to 3x, but you can add 4v to 5v. And you can add 3x to 4x
4v + 3x + 5v + 4x = 4v + 5v + 3x + 4x = 9v + 7x
When simplifying algebraic expressions, subtraction and/or putting negative numbers work pretty much the same. You can only subtract like terms. The only difficulty you will encounter is the subtraction or addition of integers.
Do 4v - 3x - 2v + 4x
I can do 4v with 2v. However, be very careful! The operation on the left of 2v is subtraction, so you have to do 4v - 2v = 2v
In the same way, I can do 3x with 4x, but the operation next to 3x is subtraction. You have to change the subtraction to + -
Then, you will do -3x + 4x = 1x. I hope you have mastered how to add integers
4v - 3x - 2v + 4x = 2v + 1x
Useful guidelines when simplifying algebraic expressions:
Step 1: Look for like terms
Step 2: Watch out for minus or negative sign next to variables (on the left of the variables)
Step 3: When you move this term around, you got to move it with the minus or negative sign as well
Step 4: Add or subtract only the integers on the left of the like terms.